We are all familiar with the concept of refactoring. I think generally we agree that refactoring can be a useful thing when changes are needed in our applications; but what about making changes for change sake. I've seen recently an abuse of the word; every change becomes a refactoring effort. Properly applied, refactoring is an effective way to reduce code-debt or change from one implementation to another or as an effective means of adjusting the underlying architecture of an application as the needs of an IT organization evolve.
Sometimes though, refactoring is undertaken for no good reason at all. A recent example that I experienced was a 8 month .NET project that had been underway for 4 months. The initial implementation used the CSLA approach to data persistence. It was determined (somehow) that CSLA was a 'bad thing' and the code was refactored to use nHibernate and Spring.NET. The justification for this change (given to management) was technology standardization; not a very convincing argument since this was the only .NET application in-house. Other technical arguments were made about these ease of testing provided by nHibernate and Spring.NET, but these were more academic and preference based arguments. The end result was 7 weeks of lost progress by the project team. The cost in time and money was not determined and the impact on the delivery schedule was not accounted for in the project plan. Estimates vary about the dollar impact of this change, but for argument sake lets say it cost 90,000 USD.
This event was an act of prejudicial refactoring. Prejudicial refactoring is the act of refactoring for the some poorly justified reason. In our example case, 18% of the budget and 25% of the time was expended on an unnecessary change. The objective of any software project is to deliver the software. There are numerous reasons to argue for or against any one technology decision; CSLA v. nHibernate, Oracle v. MySQL etc. Once those decisions have been made and the project is in motion, changes to these underlying technologies must be made with caution.
Software is tricky business, the unforeseen technology issue, or the ever changing requirements can derail a project from it's budget at a moments notice. Knowingly consuming the budget for an arbitrary reason is grossly irresponsible. Change for the sake of change is a 'bad thing', and therefore refactoring just because we can is also a 'bad thing'. Careful consideration of the reason for change, and the impact of that change are a must in order to responsibly develop software.